North Carolina Journal of International Law

"Connecting North Carolina to the World of International Law"

Radioactive Cloud Drifts Past Legal Repercussions

By: Lauren Toole In late September, a small, atmospheric monitoring station in Denmark detected something unusual: a radioactive isotope known as ruthenium-106.[i] The isotope was not just present in Denmark—it showed up across Europe, from Cyprus to Spain.[ii] Why the fuss? Ruthenium-106, an isotope that is created solely in nuclear reactors, usually only appears when “something goes terribly wrong.”[iii] Within…






Current Limits Regarding the International Prosecution of Cybercrimes

By: Phil Pullen               The probability that the science-fiction doomsday scenarios involving a key piece of critical infrastructure, such as a state’s nuclear arsenal or electric grid, being taken down has risen from “highly unlikely” to “probable” in recent decades, sending shivers down the spine of just about anyone.  It’s not just the fact…






Texas Executes Mexican Citizen

By: Emma Nunn On November 8, 2017, Ruben Cardenas Ramirez, a Mexican national living the in United States, was executed by lethal injection, despite international pressure from the president of Mexico and the United Nations.[1]  Ramirez was convicted in 1998 for the kidnap, rape, and murder of his sixteen-year-old cousin.[2] The international community criticized the execution for violating a ruling…






China and Japan Taking Advantage: The Fallout After the United States’ Departure From the Trans-Pacific Partnership

By: Ryan Nichols In January of this year, President Trump informed the world that the United States would be abandoning the Trans-Pacific Partnership (“TPP”).[1]  The TPP, negotiated over the course of five years by former President Barack Obama, was a proposed free trade agreement that allied the United States with eleven Pacific Rim economies.  These countries included Australia, Brunei, Canada,…






Sharmila Rudrappa on Commercial Surrogacy in India

By: Josh Stroud On Friday, Oct. 27th, the North Carolina Journal of International Law was pleased to welcome Dr. Sharmila Rudrappa, a sociologist at the University of Texas at Austin, at its annual symposium, titled Surrogacy and International Law.  Dr. Rudrappa’s current research focuses on commercial surrogacy in India and the Indian government’s recent efforts to regulate the practice. [i]…






A Form of Psychological Torture: Why Israel’s Refusal to Return the Bodies of Palestinian Soldiers is a Violation of International Law

By: Matthew Ledford A funeral ceremony and a proper burial have always seemingly been associated with maintaining the dignity of the dead and providing the family of those deceased with some amount of closure, no matter how small. Yet, for some individuals in Palestine, this important burial ritual has been made nearly impossible.[1]  In the midst of the ever-raging battle…






Professor Pamela Laufer-Ukeles on Informed Consent in Surrogate Motherhood

By: Will Patrick In the problem-riddled area of international surrogacy, women’s rights are often overlooked, downplayed, and simply ignored. Professor Pamela Laufer-Ukeles in her upcoming publication, The Disembodied Womb: Pregnancy, Informed Consent, and Surrogate Motherhood (“The Disembodied Womb”), addresses the medical and legal fields’ lack of appropriate measures for protecting rights of women during and after pregnancy.[1] On October 27,…






A Response to Things That Money Can Buy: Reproductive Justice and the International Market for Gestational Surrogacy, by Kimberly M. Mutcherson

By: Molly Rubin In her paper and symposium topic, Things that Money can Buy: Reproductive Justice and the International Market for Gestational Surrogacy, Rutgers Law Professor Kimberly Mutcherson advocates for countries to adopt a realistic perspective in the international surrogacy market by treating it like the commercial transaction it undeniably is. To ensure reproductive justice for all, Mutcherson focuses her…